Posted on November 19, 2014 by iMFdirect
By Davide Furceri and Prakash Loungani
(version in Español, Français, 中文, Русский, عربي, 日本語)
Unemployment is a global problem. If the unemployed formed their own country, it would be the fifth largest in the world. Of the nearly 200 million people around the world looking for work, half are in emerging markets and about a quarter in advanced economies, reflecting the growing weight of emerging markets in the global labor force (Figure 1).
Filed under: Advanced Economies, Economic Crisis, Economic research, Emerging Markets, Employment, Europe, G-20, growth, IMF, International Monetary Fund, unemployment | Tagged: advanced economies, emerging economies, frontier economies, G20, gowth, infrastructure, job creation, jobs, labor force, Russia, unemployment, United States, World Economic Outlook | Leave a comment »
Posted on November 12, 2014 by iMFdirect
By Olivier Blanchard, Luc Laeven and Esteban Vesperoni
The global crisis—which challenged paradigms about the functioning of financial markets and had significant consequences in other markets—and the sluggish recovery since 2009, are a reminder of the importance of understanding interconnections and risks in the global economy. The increasing trend in global trade, and even more significant, in cross-border financial activities, suggests that spillovers can take many different forms.
The understanding of transmission channels of spillovers has become essential, not only from an academic perspective, but also policymaking. The challenges faced by policy coordination after the initial response to the crisis in 2009—illustrated by the debate on the impact of unconventional monetary policy in emerging economies—raise wide ranging issues on fiscal, monetary, and financial policies.
Filed under: Advanced Economies, Economic Crisis, Economic research, Emerging Markets, Europe, Financial Crisis, Fiscal policy, Globalization, IMF, Politics | Tagged: capital flows, central banks, European Central Bank, exchange rate, Jacques Polak Annual Research Conference, Olivier Blanchard, sovereign debt, spillovers, surveillance, trade, U.S. monetary policy, unconventional monetary policy | Leave a comment »
Posted on November 11, 2014 by iMFdirect
By Bertrand Gruss and Fabiano Rodrigues Bastos
(version in Español and Português)
China is still a distant and exotic country in the mind of many people in Latin America. Yet, with the Asian giant rapidly expanding its ties with the region (the share of exports going to China is now ten times larger than in 2000), their economic fates seem to be increasingly connected. And in fact, a sharper slowdown in China now represents one of the key risks Latin Americans should be worried about—and prepare for. So, what is at stake? How much do shocks to China matter for economies in Latin America?
In an earlier study presented in our April 2014 Regional Economic Outlook, we analyzed growth spillovers in a large model of the global economy, focusing on the link through commodity prices. Here, we complement that analysis by using a simple yet novel approach that exploits the reaction of financial markets to the release of economic data. We find that growth surprises in China have a significant effect on market views about Latin American economies.
Filed under: Advanced Economies, Asia, Economic outlook, Economic research, Emerging Markets, Español, Globalization, growth, IMF, International Monetary Fund, Investment, Latin America, Politics | Tagged: Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, commodiity prices, exchange rate, Finance & Development magazine, financial market, fiscal policy, Latin America, Mexico, Peru, Poland, Regional Economic Outlook: Western Hemisphere, spillovers, Turkey | Leave a comment »
Posted on November 7, 2014 by iMFdirect
What a difference 25 years can make. The fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989 was a day that changed world history and transformed Europe.
Central and Eastern Europe embarked on a historic transition from communism to capitalism and democracy. We thought this landmark anniversary was a good time to look back at the achievements and also forward to the future, as we do in a new IMF report on 25 Years of Transition. The IMF’s First Deputy Managing Director David Lipton also gave a recent speech in Warsaw, Poland on this important chapter in history.
Filed under: Advanced Economies, Economic Crisis, Europe, Global Governance, Globalization | Tagged: advanced economies, Berlin Wall, David Lipton, eastern Europe, euro area, Europe, Germany, video | Leave a comment »
Posted on October 28, 2014 by iMFdirect
By Antoinette M. Sayeh
Tremendous efforts are under way to upgrade sub-Saharan Africa’s infrastructure. But the needs on the ground are still immense as evidenced by the frequent electricity blackouts, poor roads, and insufficient access to clean water in many countries.
Infrastructure is one of the key challenges facing policymakers in the region—I experienced it first hand when I was finance minister of Liberia before coming to the IMF. The benefits are fairly clear: with improved infrastructure, new growth opportunities in the manufacturing and services sector can be generated, barriers to intraregional trade can be reduced, and economies will be better positioned to transition from low to higher productivity activities. Without improved infrastructure, I fear the increase in productivity and greater economic diversification necessary to sustain Africa’s current growth momentum will not materialize.
In this spirit, in the latest Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa economists from the IMF’s African Department looked at progress so far in addressing the infrastructure deficit and discussed policies needed going forward.
Filed under: Economic outlook, Economic research, Financial Crisis, Globalization, growth, IMF, International Monetary Fund, Low-income countries, Reform | Tagged: Africa, China, domestic tax revenues, infrastructure, investors, manufacturing, public debt, Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, telecommunication | Leave a comment »
Posted on October 22, 2014 by iMFdirect
By Rabah Arezki
Natural gas is creating a new reality for economies around the world. Three major developments of the past few years have thrust natural gas into the spotlight: the shale gas revolution in the United States, the reduction in nuclear power supply following the Fukushima disaster in Japan, and geopolitical tensions between Russia and Ukraine.
Over the last decade, the discovery of massive quantities of unconventional gas resources around the world has transformed global energy markets, and reshaped the geography of global energy trade (see map). Consumption of natural gas now accounts for nearly 25 percent of global primary energy consumption. Meanwhile, the share of oil has declined from 50 percent in 1970 to about 30 percent today.
Filed under: Advanced Economies, Asia, Economic outlook, Economic research, Europe, Globalization, growth, IMF, International Monetary Fund, Investment, Politics | Tagged: energy prices, Fukushima disaster, gas supply, Japan, natural gas, Russia, shale gas, Ukraine, United States, World Economic Outlook | Leave a comment »
Posted on October 10, 2014 by iMFdirect
By Serkan Arslanalp, David Jones, and Sanjay Hazarika
Six years after the start of the global financial crisis, low interest rates and other central bank policies in the United States remain critical to encourage economic risk-taking—increased consumption by households, and greater willingness to invest and hire by businesses. However, this prolonged monetary ease also may have encouraged excessive financial risk-taking. Our analysis in the latest Global Financial Stability Report suggests that although economic benefits are becoming more evident, U.S. officials should remain alert to excessive financial risk-taking, particularly in lower-rated corporate debt markets.
Bullish financial risk-taking bears monitoring
Persistently low global interest rates have prompted investors to search for higher returns in a wide range of markets, such as stocks, and investment-grade and high-yield bonds. This has resulted in escalating asset prices, and enabled issuers to sell assets with a reduced degree of protection for investors (we give you an example below). The combined trends of more expensive assets and a weakening quality of issuance could pose risks to stability.
Filed under: Advanced Economies, Annual Meetings, Economic Crisis, Economic outlook, Economic research, Emerging Markets, Finance, Financial Crisis, Fiscal policy, Globalization, IMF, International Monetary Fund, Investment | Tagged: banking system, corporate debt, emerging market, Global Financial Stability Report, interest rates, U.S. Fed, United States | Leave a comment »