Posted on November 19, 2012 by iMFdirect
By Nicolas Magud and Evridiki Tsounta
(Version in Español)
Many Latin American countries have strengthened their monetary policy frameworks in recent years to keep the rate of inflation in check. Some of them have adopted an inflation target and use the policy interest rate as the main tool to achieve that target.
But how do central bankers know whether monetary policy is expansionary or contractionary? Policymakers would need to know how the current policy rate compares to a benchmark or neutral rate.
The neutral interest rate is the real interest rate consistent with the economy operating at full employment and stable inflation. If the economy is operating above its potential capacity and inflation is rising, policymakers should increase the policy interest rate above the neutral level to cool down the economy. Conversely, if the economy is operating below its full employment level, interest rates may need to be lowered below the neutral level.
Filed under: Economic research, Emerging Markets, Employment, Español, Finance, growth, Inequality, Latin America, Low-income countries, Politics, Public debt | Tagged: Brazil, business cycle, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, EMBI, Evridiki Tsounta, Guatemala, inflation targeting, interest rates, Mexico, monetary policy, neutral rate, Nicolas Magud, Paraguay, Peru, the Dominican Republic, Uruguay | 3 Comments »
Posted on February 29, 2012 by iMFdirect
By Jonathan D. Ostry
(Version in Español)
The global financial crisis has reminded emerging market economies, if they needed reminding, that capital flows can be highly volatile and that crises need not be home grown.
Emerging markets have been affected in a variety of ways, not least by the sharp ups and downs in exchange rates that volatile capital flows engender.
These ups and downs may be less benign in emerging markets than they might be in advanced economies for a number of reasons.
- First, emerging markets may have more fragile balance sheets—essentially they are less well hedged against currency risk—so depreciations may engender financial distress and even bankruptcies and adverse effects on economic activity.
- Second, they may be less flexible, so that when the exchange rate strengthens and the traded goods sector loses competitiveness, this may have permanent effects on the economy even if the exchange rate later reverts to its initial level.
Filed under: Economic Crisis, Economic research, Emerging Markets, Finance, Financial Crisis, Financial regulation, Globalization, IMF, International Monetary Fund, Public debt, recession | Tagged: Atish Ghosh, foreign exchange intervention, FX, iMFdirect blog, inflation targeting, Jonathan Ostry, macroprudential regulations, Marcos Chamon | 3 Comments »
Posted on March 13, 2011 by iMFdirect
By Olivier Blanchard
(Version in Français, Español)
The global economic crisis taught us to question our most cherished beliefs about the way we conduct macroeconomic policy. Earlier I had put forward some ideas to help guide conversations as we reexamine these beliefs. I was heartened by the wide online debate and the excellent discussions at a conference on post-crisis macroeconomic policy here in Washington last week. At the end of the conference, I organized my concluding thoughts around nine points. Let me go through them and see whether you agree or not. Continue reading
Filed under: Economic Crisis, Economic research, Financial Crisis, Financial regulation, Fiscal policy, growth, International Monetary Fund | Tagged: Adair Turner, agency theory, Andrew Sheng, Behavioral economics, capital controls, cross-border linkages, Dani Rodrik, Financial regulation, inflation targeting, Joseph Stiglitz, liquidity, macroeconomic policy, macroprudential regulation, Michael Spence, Olivier Blanchard, Paul Romer, policy instruments, policy targets, Robert Solow, SDRs, Special Drawing Rights, systemic crisis, Washington Consensus | 23 Comments »