Posted on July 11, 2016 by iMFdirect
By Vivek Arora
Version in 中文 (Chinese), Español (Spanish)
IMF lending increased to unprecedented levels in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. As difficulties emerged, we extended financial support to countries across the world—in the euro area, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and emerging economies in Europe.
The IMF tried to draw lessons in real time as the crisis evolved in order to adapt our operations. We reviewed individual programs and, from time to time, paused and took stock of our experience across countries.
Filed under: Economic research, Financial Crisis, Fiscal policy, IMF, International Monetary Fund, Multilateral Cooperation | Tagged: Africa, Arab Spring, Asia, crisis programs, emerging economies, Europe, financial crises, financing arrangements, fiscal policy, global financial crisis, IMF, iMFdirect, International Monetary Fund, Middle East, structural reforms | Leave a comment »
Posted on March 10, 2014 by iMFdirect
By Stijn Claessens
Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.
The world has been littered with many financial crises over the centuries, yet many a time these lessons are ignored, and crises recur. Indeed, there are many clear lessons on the causes of past crises, the severity of their consequences, and how future crises can be prevented or better managed when they occur.
This applies to the 2007-09 global financial crisis that brought colossal disruptions in asset and credit markets, massive erosions of wealth, and unprecedented numbers of bankruptcies. Six years after the crisis began, its lingering effects are still visible in advanced and emerging markets alike. It is, therefore, a good time to take stock.
Filed under: Advanced Economies, Economic research, Financial Crisis, Fiscal policy, IMF, International Monetary Fund, Politics | Tagged: banking, book launch, economic reform, financial crises, macroeconomics | 2 Comments »
Posted on May 13, 2011 by iMFdirect
By Ruud de Mooij
In February, President Obama said “Companies are taxed heavily for making investments with equity; yet the tax code actually pays companies to invest using leverage”. And he is right: the corporate tax code in the United States creates a significant bias toward debt finance over equity.
Of course, the U.S. is not unique. In most of Europe, Asia and elsewhere in the world, the tax advantages of debt finance are even bigger than in the U.S.
The crux of the issue is that interest paid on borrowing can be deducted from the corporate tax bill, while returns paid on equity—dividends and capital gains—cannot.
The debt distortion is not new. What is new, however, is that we have come to realize that excessive debt (or leverage) is much more costly than we have always thought. Continue reading
Filed under: Advanced Economies, Financial Crisis, Fiscal policy, International Monetary Fund | Tagged: capital gains, corporate income tax, corporate profits, debt bias, debt finance, dividends, equity, financial crises, global financial crisis, interest deductiblity, investment, leverage, tax avoidance, tax deduction, tax incentives | Leave a comment »