Posted on February 9, 2017 by iMFdirect
By Philip Daniel, Michael Keen, Artur Swistak, and Victor Thuronyi
Versions in Français (French), Português (Portuguese), and Español (Spanish)
Seventy percent of the world’s poorest people live in countries rich in oil, natural gas or minerals, making effective taxation of these extractive industries critical to alleviating poverty and achieving sustained growth. But national borders make that task much harder, opening possibilities for tax avoidance by multinationals and raising tough jurisdictional issues when resource deposits cross frontiers. Continue reading
Filed under: developing countries, Economic research, Fiscal policy, growth, infrastructure, International Monetary Fund, oil, taxation | Tagged: cross-border linkages, developing countries, extractive industries, IMF, iMFdirect blog, infrastructure, Mauritania, minerals, natural resources, oil, sustainable growth, taxation, technology, transfer pricing | Leave a comment »
Posted on December 21, 2016 by iMFdirect
Terms of trade is the price of a country’s exports relative to its imports. The commodity terms of trade refers to a country’s commodity exports relative to its commodity imports.
When the price of commodities, like oil, plummeted in 2015, economies that rely on exporting commodities had their terms of trade drop by an average of about 10 percent of GDP that year. Economies that rely more on importing commodities saw about a 2 percent of GDP benefit from the 2015 drop in prices. Continue reading
Filed under: commodities, Economic research, IMF, International Monetary Fund, oil, trade, U.S. | Tagged: commodity exporters, commodity importers, commodity prices, GDP, IMF, iMFdirect blog, oil, trade, World Economic Outlook | Leave a comment »
Posted on October 27, 2016 by iMFdirect
By Rabah Arezki and Akito Matsumoto
Versions in عربي (Arabic), 中文 (Chinese), Français (French), 日本語 (Japanese), Русский (Russian), and Español (Spanish)
While oil prices have stabilized somewhat in recent months, there are good reasons to believe they won’t return to the high levels that preceded their historic collapse two years ago. For one thing, shale oil production has permanently added to supply at lower prices. For another, demand will be curtailed by slower growth in emerging markets and global efforts to cut down on carbon emissions. It all adds up to a “new normal” for oil.
Filed under: Advanced Economies, Economic research, Financial markets, growth, IMF, International Monetary Fund, oil, technology | Tagged: advanced economies, China, COP21, developing economies, economic growth, emerging market economies, financial markets, IMF, International Monetary Fund, Iran, oil, oil prices, OPEC, Russia, shale oil, technology | Leave a comment »
Posted on June 8, 2016 by iMFdirect
By Martin Sommer, Juan Treviño, and Neil Hickey
Version in عربي (Arabic)
The significant and prolonged drop in oil prices since mid-2014 has changed the fortunes of many energy-exporting nations around the world. This applies particularly to countries of the Middle East and Central Asia, because these regions are home to 11 of the world’s top 20 energy exporters.
Filed under: Central Asia, growth, IMF, International Monetary Fund, Middle East, oil, trade | Tagged: budget deficits, Central Asia, energy prices, exchange rate, exports, fiscal policy, growth, Gulf countries, IMF, International Monetary Fund, Middle East, oil, oil exporters, oil prices | Leave a comment »
Posted on January 11, 2016 by iMFdirect
by Vitor Gaspar, Michael Keen, and Ian Parry
(Versions in عربي, 中文, Español, and Français)
The Paris Agreement on Climate Change is a historic diplomatic achievement. Climate change is a global problem. Many believed that global problem solving would prove elusive: the benefits of cutting emissions arise globally while the costs of doing so are borne nationally, so national self-interest would prevent a meaningful agreement. Paris proves otherwise—creating a commonality of purpose at the global level. Continue reading
Filed under: Advanced Economies, climate change, Europe, Fiscal, Fiscal policy, IMF, International Monetary Fund | Tagged: carbon pricing, Climate change, COP-21, energy prices, energy subsidies, global energy subsidies, new technology, oil, Paris agreement | Leave a comment »